Gilt bronze. The emergence from the Dark Ages is embodied in the rise to power of the Frankish King, Charlemagne in 768 (founder of the Holy Roman Empire after 800) followed by conquering southern Europe from France to Italy and much of Northern Europe. The condition for peace was acceptance of Christianity, under penalty of death. Conversion was effective and Northern Europeans, primarily Saxons, wore small cross to affirm their Christianity. This example, Just over 1” height with centered cross beam and circular beam ends. The center with squared, bordered and broad band saltire. Professionally refurbished with gold overlay restored.