9th-10th century AD. These heavy bronze brooches were attached to the cloth or leather jerkin which protected the warrior’s upper body. They served to cushion and nullify sword blows and the base projections could engage the blade breaking the stride of the blow as well as preventing the blade from slipping to an unprotected area. Public television shows variations of these brooches in current Viking programming. This example is bronze, 2 3/8” width.